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Michela Vignoli (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology) held two Open Data workshops earlier this year. The first one was organised in the context of the CeDEM 2015 conference and the co-located Share-PSI 2.0 workshop and attracted 15 participants from Austria, Great Britain and other European countries. The second one was held at the 4th OGD D-A-CH-LI conference in Vienna together with Johann Höchtl (Danube University Krems) and Martin Kaltenböck (Semantic Web Company) and had 8 participants from Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Both workshops had three short opening talks followed by an open discussion by the participants. The first workshop at CeDEM 2015 was focused on exchanging best/good practices and challenges with Open Data from a public and private point of view. The second workshop dealt with requirements of and current barriers to an (Open) Data Market in the D-A-CH-LI region.

Highlights from the open discussion at the CeDEM workshop in Krems

Real costs and usage of Open Data are difficult to estimate, respectively to be tracked. Private companies and other users help improving Open Data and provide added value to it, as we have seen at the example of the start-up enriched available Open Data with own data and data by third parties as for most of Austria none or only insufficient data were available. is a success story: the small company has now 10 employees and plans to expand to the German market. An attendee from the Austrian publisher Manz reported that they protested when they had to introduce Open Data. But it led them to change their mindset and now they are still in business. For companies it is important to re-think their business model and that Open Data is, in the end, a reallocation of costs: from selling data to selling services. It is important to find and to address the right market.

Highlights from the open discussion at the OGD D-A-CH-LI workshop in Vienna

In terms of an (Open) Data Market, it is not only about Big (Open) Data, apps, and process optimisation. The concept should be extended to include also Smart Data, which are steadily increasing with the Internet of Things. It is important to integrate smart services to the Data Market concept, otherwise big providers (e.g. Google, Apple) will take the lead in this field. The discussants proposed to re-name the concept to Data & Data Service Market. In Austria this market is not mainly driven by supply and demand, but by pressure from outside (e.g. pioneers on the world market). However, current Austrian lighthouse projects and success stories remain isolated cases. The potential of Open and Smart Data is not restricted to apps, but includes also physical and other products (an example was mentioned: emulator based on Open Data, which is being developed for elderly). It is necessary to re-think values: e.g. apps may have minor economic benefit but more societal benefits. As an example, the added value produced by Wikipedia is not reflected in the GDP. More market transparency is needed to make the market more easily accessible, especially for newcomers. There is an area of tension between the high complexity of a Data & Data Service Market (as a large amount of heterogeneous data needs to be considered in its context) and missing awareness/knowledge about the data, which is at all available. In terms of data curation: suitable asset management models exist and should be integrated for processing the data.

Protocol of the workshop Towards a sustainable Austrian Data Market

20.05.2015, CeDEM 2015, Krems

Scribe: Daniel Pop, West University of Timisoara (RO)

Michela - presents the outline of the workshop: there will be 3 presentations + open discussion

Opening talks

Firstly, Michela gives an overview of Open Data

  • What open data is
  • Open Data sector is under development
  • Entrepreneurs hesitate to enter the market
  • Austria progress a lot as latest ePSI-Scoreboard shows
  • Some slides from Big Open Data Report are presented highlighting predictions of the potential growth of GDP thanks to Big and Open Data as well as the current state of things
  • An Open Data Market Framework would regulate on different directions

Gregor Eibl, BKA (Bundeskanzleramt Oesterreich) Developments of and Best practices from &

  • On

- 1600 metadata sets and 271 apps

- 2014: 117,000 unique clients (+67% on 2013)

- contain only meta-data; datasets remain on their original portals; this is a good practice as it makes it easier to publish the data

- the portal incorporates metafiles from local OGD portals

- Good practice: use of open-source software for providing the service (CKAN, Wordpress)

- The portal won the UN Award for the whole national portal integrating different local sources

- New features of the portal are presented (coming from CKAN platform)

  • On Open Government Documents

- License: CC BY 3.0 AT

  • On the pilot for Linked data (

- data from converted to RDF and enriched by 3rd party developers

- SPARQL endpoint

- usage examples are missing for now

  • On

- target groups: business, ngo/npo, research, community

- cooperation between OKFN, Wikimedia Austria, Cooperation OGD Austria

- same rules as for (metadata, CKAN catalogue etc)

- opening up business data is even more difficult: it is more probable that already available data will be made available more structured and licensed, but new data will be difficult

- on governmental level it will be necessary to open up more data due to the PSI directive

Andreas Woditschka, Developments of and Best practices from

- sport facilities

- some information from, but enhanced with 3rd party data + Own data

- Eversport is one of the apps listed in the presentation before

- no data about sport facilities available from most regions in Austria (Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Styria, etc.)

- technical limitations

- different data formats and sources

- ETL Process, Regular expressions

- Tools: google refine, notepad++

- mashing-up with other Open Data providers: they will look into integrating dynamic data (weather data)

Karl-Heinz Leitner, AIT
Open Innovation: Oportunities and challenges

- users are important innovators

- Henry Chesbrough (2003): Open Innovation

- project collected success stories, scenarios for open innovation

- Open Source Society (OSCAR = Open Source Car)

- Open Innovation and open science (E.g. PatientsLikeMe, 23andme, whole brain catalogue etc)

- OI offers huge opportunities for business and governments

- New challenges:

--- how to involve citizens to use this data (incentives and motivation).

--- what is the optimal level of participation?

--- how to control the processes? A thread for decision people (governments).

--- companies still have to define their core competencies and protect their knowledge

--- business model is key for success, so usually are not disclosed.

--- new, hybrid business models are necessary (3P model: People, Profit, Planet)

- Business models by Gassmann and Osterwalder

- Open Innovation, an evolutionary process

- increased competition between private, public, ngo, etc


Open Discussion

- Open Source Society --- 53% of Austrians are providing their energy for free, i.e. voluntary work

- Johann: a distinction between tangible and virtual goods is needed: digital goods are just marginal costs

- people are eager to collaborate

- Patents

- Karl-Heinz: successful companies who provide free services still have lots of secrets (e.g. design of new Apple products, Google search algorithm)

- Karl-Heinz: new monopolies

- Karl-Heinz: investments need to be paided back

- How much costs to open datasets in Austria? A: Gregor: we don't know exact investment and it’s difficult to asses

- Gregor: pointed out that data can be re-sold

- Johann: in 2013 -- a study showed that a considerable effort has been invested in the creation of the portal. Nobody knows exactly because there were no direct, specific reporting of people effort working on opening-up data tasks. In Austrian case, the already well-established ICT infrastructure eased a lot opening the data. In other countries, the costs of ICT infrastructure may be a considerable cost

- Karen Halford: private sector to improve the open data? A: In case of, Vienna tennis federation benefit of the data from and updated their own database with new facilities

- Karl-Heinz: for the 271 apps on, it would be good to have an evaluation of these apps: are just for fun, are a start for start-ups, what business models they use?

- In case of, initially there were business angels and money coming from City of Vienna; now, it has 10 employees and it’s planning to ‘attack’ the German market

- Is important to find the market and how to address the market

- Adding services govs cannot provide (adding value to data); this provides business opportunities as well as for outsourcing

- Contribute back the data to governments (for money)

- Gregor: The BKA thought about that, but as it is no normal procurement process this is a legal issue

Michela summarizes: - it will be more about selling services than selling data

- money will not come directly from users, but from other sources (re-distribution of costs)

- rethink the capitalistic approach to develop new models, to shift around costs to other places

Peter Guggenberger; Manz (Publisher of legal papers)

- MANZ Publishing house is working with open data since 87

- in 97 the government decided to free data for the market. The first reaction was: protection! But in the end they had to accept it, and they are still in business

- What do the customers want? What do they need?

- If something is free, doesn't mean that we cannot earn money

- Open data helped us to transform the mindset

- Clients accepted it

- Demand is driven by the customers


Link to Source

Protocol of the workshop Towards a D-A-CH-LI Open Data Market

22.06.2015, 4th OGD D-A-CH-LI Conference 2015, Vienna


The workshop took place at the 4th OGD D-A-CH-LI Conference on the 24th of June 2015 in Vienna and was led by Michela Vignoli (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology), Johann Höchtl (Danube University Krems), and Martin Kaltenböck (Semantic Web Company). The workshop started with three short presentations by the workshop leads followed by an open discussion between the eight participants. The goal of the workshop was to discuss requirements of and current barriers to an (Open) Data Market in the D-A-CH-LI region and beyond. The presentation of the opening talks is available as ODP and PDF (in German).

Highlights opening talks

Martin Kaltenböck opened the workshop with a quick introduction to Open Data and its market potential as well as a short overview of the current status of the (Open) Data Market in Europe and worldwide. According to the Big Open Data Study from 2014 (p. 82) Big & Open Data can increase the GDP in Europe of 1.9%. The EU project Big Data Europe is an example for an effort towards coordinating Big Data stakeholders from various areas with a focus on the necessary infrastructure. In general the directorates for Big Data in the EU are not acting in a coordinated manner at the moment. Data Management is of growing importance and many big companies are already addressing the topic. In public administration, however, Data Management is not being addressed that much due to related costs but also because of the "traditional" mindset. The goal of a single digital market is not at reach yet. In the D-A-CH-LI region there is only a slow progress, but it is being pushed by the European Commission. Eastern Euopean countries already have implemented a big OGD portal with linked data and tend to outpace Central European countries. The implementation of the PSI Directive in European member states will help opening up registries.

Michela Vignoli presendet a short report on the main results from the previous workshop Towards a sustainable Austrian Data Market which she held at the CeDEM 2015 conference (link to the protocol). Invited speakers (Gregor Eibl - Austrian Federal Chancellery, Andreas Woditschka -, Karl-Heinz Leitner, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology) reported good practices from the Austrian Open Data Portals ( and and experiences from the start-up, and presented challenges in terms of gearing businesses to Open Innovation approaches. Finally Michela reported the highlights from the open discussion, which concluded the CeDEM workshop in Krems. Real costs and usage of Open Data are difficult to estimate, respectively to be tracked. Private companies and other users help improving Open Data and provide added value to it, as we have seen at the example of is a success story: the small company has now 10 employees and plans to expand to the German market. An attendee from the Austrian publisher Manz reported that they protested when they had to introduce Open Data. But it led them to change their mindset and now they are still in business. For companies it is important to re-think their business model and that Open Data is, in the end, a reallocation of costs: from selling data to selling services. It is important to find and to address the right market.

Johann Höchtl continued with an overview of current legal, economic, technical, and organisational barriers. For instance, a large part of the added value generated by Netflix will not remain in Europe due to the missing unified legal framework. To avoid similar consequences for Big (Open) Data it is necessary to adapt the legal framework. This needs to be supported on political level like it is being done in GB. Another barrier are missing lighthouse projects or business models in terms of data economy. An example for a business model which gives a core product away for free but sells services, which could be a model for Open Data businesses, is Freemium. Technical barriers are poor data quality and metadata, as well as missing interoperability and standards (e.g. for geo data). More harmonisation will lead to better usability of the data. Finally there are also organisational aspects to be considered, e.g. that cooperation of administration cannot be taken for granted. There is still a lot of restraint in terms of opening data. Also, in Europe there are no cloud infrastructure providers. The discussion was opened by a projection of what an (Open) Data Market Framework would regulate and which steps could lead to the implementation of a sustainable Data Market.

Protocol Open Discussion

Joern von Lucke, Zeppelin University DE: it is more than just about Big (Open) Data, it is also about Smart Data: Smart Government, Internet of Things; Smart Data from both public and private areas. Smart Data Market: in March 2015 a German study Smart Service Welt has been published. We need to prepare for the new actors in this field (smart objects and their use) and think about Smart Services. We need to tackle Smart Services to avoid that big companies like Apple and Google are the only key players.

Lisbeth Mosnik, BMVIT AT: Agrees with the comments by von Lucke and suggests to rename (Open) Data Market to Data & Data Service Market.

Georg Stockinger, AT: Towards a data market: in Austria the situation is a bit simpler as, in terms of Open Data, it is not about supply and demand. It is more about pressure from outside. However, on political level there is no national strategy or laws supporting Open Data. The lighthouse projects, e.g. apps, which are being developed using the available Open Data, are just isolated cases.

Lisbeth Mosnik, BMVIT AT: It is also, in addition to apps or process optimisation, about more innovative solutions, e.g. physical solutions. An example is an emulator for elderly using Open Data currently being developed.

Sebastian Asker, Senate Administration for Economy, Technology and Research (SenWTF) Berlin, DE: Possible applications of Open Data only thought of as Apps. This is not enogh to measure value. Apps generate only little economic benefit, more societal benefit. But apps do not cover the potential.
Two alternative aspects: 1) Open Data initiative in Berlin: focus on generating economic re-use of data. Thematic fields: mix public data with private company data, which can lead to process improvements. It has not always to be about developing an app. 2) In administration processes should be identified and from that derived which data there is in administration. It is not about opening up that data in the first place. It is important to motivate and generate acceptance for Open Data in administration, but also to create awareness of which data there is in general in administration.

Michela Vignoli, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology: There seems to be an area of tension between 1) the growing complexity of the Data Market concept due to the large heterogeneity of data, which needs to be considered, and 2) the missing awareness and knowledge about the data, which is at all available. On the one hand we need to consider a large variety of data, and on the other hand in practice users are overwhelmed by their own data and how to use or provide it.

Sebastian Asker, Senate Administration for Economy, Technology and Research (SenWTF) Berlin, DE: In Berlin there is a known ecosystem in the startup scene. Currently there is a wave of restoring previously privatised public tasks and assets to public ones. This has a great potential for making more data better available.
Acteurs for market transparency: social entrepreneurs.

Johann Höchtl, Danube University Krems AT: It is needed to re-think values: shift from costs for development-hours to economic value. E.g. the added value generated by Wikipedia is not reflected in the GDP.

Joern von Lucke, Zeppelin University DE: market transparency: more transparency is needed for opening up the market for laymen and investors. Transparency makes it easier to open the market.

Martin Kaltenböck, Semantic Web Company AT: Open Data Inside project by Open Knowledge AT: organisations and individuals who are using Open Data can voluntarily display the Open Data Inside Badge on their website and increase transparency.

Joern von Lucke, Zeppelin University DE: librarians and data, especially at the national and regional libraries who curate the national information infrastructure: Is it necessary to pay external labour to refurbish the data?

Johann Höchtl, Danube University Krems AT: asset management: models exist, but need to be integrated more with ICT processes.

Conclusion: Towards an Austrian Data Market

The Open Data community in Austria is very active and devoted to foster use and provision of Open Data from the public and the private sector. The discussions showed, however, that without increased commitment on political level as well as more data literacy and awareness raising initiatives it will be hard for Austria to keep pace with other global key players (e.g. USA, UK, Spain - see the current Open Data and PSI re-use status in the EU on the PSI Scoreboard). There are a number of barriers and challenges, which need to be addressed.

  • Missing format and quality standards: Both discussions confirmed that missing data format- as well as quality standards are a major issue. A national Open Data strategy and coordination, as recommended by the Big Data in Austria study (2014, 144), would help improving the quality of data. Also data curation and governance should be developed further in a national strategy.

  • Need for increased data literacy and awareness: The discussions also showed that on a practical level personell in administration etc. is not only often overwhelmed with implementing Open Data. In many cases there is no awareness or knowledge about the data wich is available at all. It is necessary to foster data literacy and awareness in order to ensure the needed competencies in the Austrian sector on the long term.

  • Economic vs. societal value of Open Data: The economic value of Open Data and related services tends to be lower than its societal value. In addition calculating the economic value is hard due to the fact that it is difficult to determine real costs and usage of Open Data. Added value provided by Open Data and related services/products should not be reduced to its economic impact. Other levels like societal impact should be considered.

  • Success stories and lighthouse projects are isolated cases: Despite the growing number of success stories (Open Data portals, start-ups, etc.) successful Open Data projects or businesses remain isolated cases. The vast majority of potential stakeholders is hesitating to enter the (Open) Data Market. Lighthouse projects are needed to create best practices and use cases.

  • Supply and demand vs. pressure from competitors: To address the right market it is important to adapt supply to demand. In the case of data, however, demand is not very high (yet), among others due to the reasons explained above. On an international scale it is important to foster a sustainable national market for Austria to become a competitor. With only few Austrian companies playing a major role in this sector the majority of the generated added value will go to other countries (see Big Data in Austria 2014, 76).

  • From (Open) Data Market to Data & Data Service Market: When addressing the question on how to foster a (Open) Data Market the discussion should not be restricted to Big (Open) Data, apps, and process optimisation. The concept should be extended to include Smart Data and Smart Services as well, which gain importance in this field (see the German study Smart Service Welt, 2015). Also it is necessary to consider physical and other potential products developed in the context of (Open) Data. For Austria to become a successful competitor in the international market it is necessary to create a framework for an Austrian Data & Data Service Market.

  • Open Data's market potential and added value: Various studies underline the supportive impact of Open Data on the Big Data Market in Austria and Europe (e.g. Big and Open Data in Europe, 2014; Big Data in Austria, 2014). Without a fully developed and working Open Data Ecosystem the Data & Data Service Market will not be able to reach its full potential. To exploit the full potential of Open Data it is necessary to create a framework facilitating the implementation of more and more qualitative Open Data. In this context, the Big and Open Data in Europe study (2014, 144-145) highlights the necessity to improve the legal framework (e.g. data privacy, data re-use, copyright law) and to create incentives for reinforcing Open Data on a national level. The other aspects mentioned above should be considered as well.

This list is by no means comprehensive. It reflects merely first conclusions drawn from the discussions with the various stakeholders at the two Open Data workshops, which will be investigated further in future research.

We kindly invite the Open Data, Big Data, and Smart Data communities to send us their comments, suggestions, etc.

Contact: michela.vignoli (at)

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